• Solidago sempervirens - Seaside Goldenrod


    "Solidago sempervirens, or Seaside Goldenrod, is an herbaceous perennial wildflower often found on beaches, dunes, salt marshes, and pinelands. This plant is highly salt tolerant and deer resistant. The plant produces basal leaves topped by 2 to 8 foot stalks. The terminal or upper axillary flowering heads are dense, the lowest branches somewhat recurved. Arching branches bear one-sided clusters of large, bright yellow flower heads. Pinch the growing tips in June for a more compact plant. This goldenrod does not spread by rhizomes or become invasive.

    "Goldenrods have been wrongfully accused of causing hay fever which is actually an allergic reaction to wind-borne pollen from ragweed. The Goldenrod genus contains about 120 species, most with similar characteristics. The Seaside Goldenrod may get confused with one of its cousins. This plant is deer resistant." (North Carolina Extension)


    Family: Asteraceae 

    Water-color sketch of Solidago Sempervirens (1896, Biodiversity Heritage Library)

    Botanical illustration depicting succulent, lance-like (lanceolate) leaves of S. sempervirens that are arranged alternately along the stem. (Carnegie Mellon)

    Faunal associations:




    (1)  Bumble Bee (Bombus impatiens) on goldenrod (Cappaert)
    (2) Sweat bee (Halictus ligatus) (Gallagher)
    (3) Female monarch (Danaus plexippusin May (Harrelson)


    "Solidago sempervirens is well adapted to coastal habitats including the backside of primary dunes, low secondary dunes and edges of salt marshes. It can be found on dunes, beaches, brackish marshes, coastal thickets, margins of estuaries, riparian habitats and in freshwater wetlands. It also occurs in abandoned fields, grasslands, disturbed sites, forest edges and along roadsides (Sheahan, 2014Lonard et al., 2015Sturtevant and Howard, 2018Barkley et al. 2018). In Puerto Rico, it can be found cultivated and naturalized in the mountains (Liogier and Martorell, 2000)." (Rojas-Sandoval)

    Solidago sempervirens growing in a coastal environment. (Plant Image Library)

    Type: Herbaceous perennial
    Family: Asteraceae
    Native Range: Eastern and northeastern United States
    Zone: 3 to 9
    Height: 3.00 to 6.00 feet
    Spread: 2.00 to 3.00 feet
    Bloom Time: September to November
    Bloom Description: Yellow
    Sun: Full sun
    Water: Dry to Medium
    Maintenance: Low
    Suggested Use: Naturalize, Dune restoration, Stormwater management
    Flower: Showy
    Attracts: Butterflies, Birds
    Tolerate: Drought, Salt

    Works Cited
    Cover: By Katja Schulz from Washington, D. C., USA - Seaside Goldenrod, CC BY 2.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=49988956
    Second Cover: by Hiranya Anderson, 21 October 2018 <https://www.inaturalist.org/photos/27436328>. Public Domain.
    Third Cover: "Solidago sempervirens L. - seaside goldenrod" by Sam Fraser-Smith, 30 July 2009, CC BY 2.0

    North Carolina Extension plant description: Solidago Sempervirens (Goldenrod, Northern Seaside Goldenrod, Seaside Goldenrod) | North Carolina Extension Gardener Plant Toolbox. https://plants.ces.ncsu.edu/plants/solidago-sempervirens/. Accessed 2 Feb. 2022.
    Water-color Sketch of Solidago sempervirens by Unknown Artist,  Biodiversity Heritage Library, 1896, Public Domain
    Solidago sempervirens'', Courtesy of the Hunt Institute for Botanical Documentation, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

    Faunal Associations:
    (2) By Judy Gallagher, Own work, CC BY 2.0,<https://flickr.com/photos/
    (3) By Kenneth Dwain Harrelson, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=14917505

    Rojas-Sandoval J, 2018. Solidago sempervirens (seaside goldenrod). Invasive Species Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CABI. DOI:10.1079/ISC.117252.20203483207  

    Solidago sempervirens (Seaside Goldenrod) By Plant Image LibraryCC BY-SA 2.0

    Information and images compiled by Erik N. Vegeto

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