• Solidago rugosa - Wrinkleleaf goldenrod

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    "Wrinkleleaf goldenrod is a native, herbaceous perennial wildflower that generally grows 2–6.5 feet tall, occasionally reaching up to 8 feet in height (Hawke, 2000). This species clones through creeping rhizomes, and forms clumps of up to fifty stems from a single stem (Flora of North America, 2020). Stems are densely bristled or strigose, though are occasionally found hairless. Leaves grow alternately, reaching up to 4 inches long and 1 inch wide. The largest leaves are found mid-stem and gradually decrease in size as they approach the inflorescence. Leaves are lanceolate, elliptic, or ovate in shape with serrated or toothed edges, tapering into a point. Leaf blades can be thin and glabrous, or thick, rough, and wrinkled in texture. Nerves may be prominent, especially on the underside of the leaf, appearing sunken above. Pinnate veins on the leaf surface cause a wrinkled texture. Small, yellow flowers, or rays, grow on panicles that reach 0.5–14.5 inches in length, or even longer in cultivars. These flowers bloom as early as September and begin to seed in early November. The seeds are small and cone-shaped, with pappus hairs on the wide end (USDA-ARS, 2020) for wind dispersal. Including the pappus hairs, the seed length is no more than 0.1 inch (Flora of North America, 2020) and difficult to see with the naked eye." (Paul - USDA)


    Botany:

    Solidago Rugosa Botany By Dr. John Hilty






    Faunal Associations:

    Insect Table By Dr. John Hilty

    "Insectivorous birds benefit indirectly from goldenrods because of the numerous insects that they attract. Other birds feed directly on goldenrods to a minor extent, including the Indigo Bunting (seeds), Eastern Goldfinch (seeds), Swamp Sparrow (seeds), Ruffed Grouse (leaves), and Greater Prairie Chicken (leaves). White-Tailed Deer and Cottontail Rabbits feed on young foliage to a limited extent, while Meadow Voles eat both the seeds and foliage." (Hilty)





    Habitat:

    "Habitats include low open woodlands, thickets, sandy swamps, wet sandy prairies, sandy banks of marshes, acid gravelly seeps, sand dunes, and rocky bluffs or cliffs. Usually, this goldenrod is found in moist areas that are sandy or where sandstone is close to the ground surface." (Hilty)





    Covers

    1. "Bloemen van een Solidago rugosa" By Dominicus Johannes Bergsma - Own work, is licensed under CC BY-SA 4.0
    2. "Solidago rugosa" by peganum is licensed under CC BY-SA 2.0

    Introduction

    Botany

    • John Hilty, "Wrinkle-Leaved Goldenrod", Illinois Wildflowers, Copyright 2004-2019. Accessed 30 January 2022
    • "1913 illustrationUSDA-NRCS PLANTS Database / Britton, N.L., and A. Brown. 1913. Illustrated flora of the northern states and Canada. Vol. 3: 390. Public Domain

    Faunal Associations:

    Habitat


    Information and images compiled by Erik N. Vegeto


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